Sunday, October 16, 2011

Big Brother and Me

My brother and me 1949

Big brother holding baby

Big brother holding the new baby

Big brother and me thinking this is crazy

Little brother wiggles and squirms

Big brother trying to hold this wiggle worm

Parents love loads of pictures by the dozen

Pictures to show off to aunts, uncles and cousins

Little boys have other ideas for a sunny day

Little boys would rather be out at play

But Mom insists, just smile a bit

Little brother not wanting to sit

Big brother sure to have a fit

Come on Mom, can't we just quit?

At the time the poses were a pain

Posing goes against a little one's grain

Little boys thinking this is insane

Enthusiasm of little boys beginning to wane

I'm glad, now we're older the pictures are here

As time passes, having picture memories so dear

We children grew up and moved away

But wonderful pictures, precious memories, are here to stay

The above poem is an excerpt from my new book

Saturday, September 24, 2011

A Boy from the Midwest

A Boy from the Midwest

A young boy listening to stories of war
The likes of which he'd never heard before
From uncles and cousins, of raging battles
Of bullets flying, of brave men dying

This young boy, restless he grew
Wanting to grow up too fast
Wanting to try something new
Yearning to do what grown men do

He hated school, he hated the rules
He wanted to grow too fast
He wanted to pay his dues, like grown men do
He longed to experience something new

He left school, he left those rules
He packed his things, his heart did sing
His mother cried, Dad shook his hand
He went off to help protect this great land

He loved classes in the Army, he loved this school
He'd hated learning before, but now this education had new rules
He found he loved to learn
These new lessons fulfilled a
need for which his heart had yearned

A boy from the Midwest
Learning, drilling, doing his best
Some lessons are in a classroom
Some lessons you learn, sometimes from doom

Some lessons were easy, some were hard
Some where you can make mistakes
Some, in battle, must be precise, for bigger stakes
Some lessons not heeded cause you strife
Some lessons not taken, cause you to forfeit your life

He found growing into a man's not always easy
Sometimes, growing pains make one queasy
But grow he did, a man he became
He fought for his country
Even though some may not know his name

(c) S. Weathers all rights reserved 2011

Thursday, September 22, 2011

These Medals on our chest

These Medals on our chest

We gave it all, we gave our best
Now we wear these medals on our chest
A piece of ribbon tied to this pin
We wear them proudly on our uniforms

A Bronze Star, Purple Heart and many more
They tell the story of the things we did
The battles we fought and the wounds we got
The places we've been and the things we seen

We fought our battles with nothing to show
But these damn little medals with ribbons attached
Yet we wear them proudly for all to see

We would gladly trade these medals you see
For peace of mind and our sanity
Because the scars inside will never heal.

(c) Steve Weathers 2011

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

The National Drags (Indianapolis) 1964

In the early 60's drag racing was the thing to do. Every time someone got a new car we wanted to see who had the fastest one. My first car was a 1949 plymouth that I paid $50 for just to have something to drive to school. It was a big bathtub an old family car but I still would run the shit out of it when ever I could. We used to race down the old gravel roads at 60 miles an hour in a cloud of dust. Just crazy teenagers having fun.
Living about an hour from Indianapolis,Indiana where the National Drag races were held was the place to be in the month of August. Just to sit and watch and listen to those engines rev was awesome. The fun was when you could get a pit pass and go down and get up close and personal with the cars.

The fellow beside the dragster is my older brother, I'm standing beside the 59 Chevy in the background. It was lots of fun while it lasted and two years later in 1966 in ended up joining the service going to Okinawa and then off to Vietnam for two years coming home in 1969. I turned 21 the following year so I bought my first brand new car 1 1970 Dodge Super Bee with a 440 6pack with a bright Canary Yellow paint job. it was my pride and joy when I drove it off the lot for the first time in the summer of 1970. Most of my old High School friends were either in College or working so my car was the envy of everyone. Every Friday night hanging out at the old Drive-In waiting for closing time, then everyone would head out of town to drag race on the back roads. One of my friends had bought a Plymouth Road Runner and he thought it was hot so we decided to race one night to see who could have the bragging rights. That was the night I won my first race.

Those were the fun days of my youth Hot cars,Drag Racing and Women.

Sunday, September 18, 2011

The Girls of the USO Shows , Vietnam

Nilla Thorn landing in Saigon 1968

The USO Girls of Vietnam

They came to us to bring a smile

In this land of Uncle Ho

Always in danger as they put on there show

Those were the girls of the USO

They all chose to come here

To lift our spirits and make us smile

Each one brought there special gift

If you weren't able to see them

The Radio waves would spread the news

That the girls were here to take away your blues

If only for a little while, they would make you smile

If you were lucky enough to see the show

Two hours of happiness

Was worth two years in the Nam

They would bring a short reprieve

The sight of a beautiful girl from the USA

Raquel Welch, Connie Stevens and Suzanne Pleshette

We remembered fondly what they wore

Just to put a smile on a weary sole

With a heart of Gold and jokes galore

Theye entertained us one and all

But now those years have passed us on by

And your faces still linger on in my mind

You have left us now in Gods grace

So accept my thanks for the memories

Thanks for all the memories

Bob Hope

Racquel Welch

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

The Lonely Dirt Road

The Lonely Dirt Road

On a lonely dirt road in the middle of a war

I was only 18 a mere kid new to this game

This game we call war, I hadn’t learned the score

This game adults play, using their kids as pawns from shore to shore

I transported pilots from Saigon to the ports

I got my first call in the summer of 68

I had not yet learned about war

Had not learned of this thing called hate

It was in the middle of a rice paddy

Just a young soldier and his pilot

Headed down that long dusty road

The pilot was my only load

We were ten miles out and no one around

It was a beautiful day, it was quiet, not a sound

Down by the river, so far out of town, it seemed like a short ride

Only a fool would venture out this far all alone

A bend in the road and a forest ahead, pretty trees all around

A shot rings out piercing the quiet, what a blood curdling sound

A hole in the windshield and a hole in his head

I looked the pilots way, was he dead?

Young soldier grabs his weapon as he looks all around

His heart is pounding, as he stays close to the ground

With his weapon in hand, would he be killed in this strange land?

He calls on his radio for help, he and a sniper the only ones around

Was this sniper alone, would others join him soon?

Was the sniper alone or an entire platoon?

Soldier checks his ammo, only one clip in his hand

Would help get there before he spilled his blood on the sand?

The radio crackled, help was on the way

But when faced with death, an hour becomes a day

He listened he waited, didn't dare breath

Would this enemy hunt him, or would he leave?

Finally after what seemed like an eternity, the sound of a chopper

A gun ship this soldier hoped

This fear was making waiting harder to cope

From his hiding place he dared not raise his scope

The chopper got closer, he heard guns blazing

The bullets cut the trees the smoke looked like a hazing

Five men jumped from the chopper with guns

He wondered; so this is how it's all done?

The soldier felt something warm on his cheek

On his cheek there was blood, flesh cut by the glass

He had not noticed any pain

He was busy concentrating so his very life he could gain

The jeep windshield had been shattered

In the frantic hail of bullets, it had not mattered

But the pilot was dead, shot through the head

The soldier thought, it could have been me instead

Young man never had never been shot at before

This experience changed him to the core

Some experiences can change you so they say

Some experiences can change your whole DNA

Monday, September 12, 2011

A War is still a War

A War is still a War

Whether it is to Vietnam or to the Middle East

Soldiers pack their bags to heed the call

Some will survive the tour, while some will fall

It doesn't matter where the call is from

Soldiers take heed when America says: "Come"

A war is still a war

We had a war to 'end all wars'

When will countries stop trying to even the score?

The Big One didn't do the trick to make them cease

Countries still have a problem living at peace

Whether it takes place in a jungle or a desert

A war still calls to its men in arms

Good men will show up to help keep the peace

To stand up for those who cannot protect themselves

Good men will assist those who need their help

Men are saying they don't want to come home just yet

When you feel the job's not done, it's hard for it to set

A job not done, gets inside your bones my Son

In Vietnam we knew, we went home yet there was still no calm

It plays on your mind

You feel you let down the memories of those left behind

You come home, but not alone

You bring ghosts of a war, you seen things you never seen before

That kind of thing, the sights, the smells, the people are in your core

Your civilian loved ones don't understand

Don't understand what you gave up to become a man

You gave up your youth and rose colored glasses

You gave it all up to kick some enemy asses

Loved ones will never fully get how you feel

They ask: "What's wrong, whats the deal?"

You can never fully explain

In the area of war, you're on a different plane

Some people will even peg you as insane

But you know you cannot just return to the mundane

Bless you my Comrades

What you saw, what you will always feel, they don't get;

Friday, September 9, 2011

Okinawa a beautiful island

This was my unit in Okinawa

It was December 1966 shortly after I finished basic and AIT, I was only 17 and to young to be sent to Vietnam so when I got my orders they said I was going to Okinawa. As a young boy growing up my uncle who was in Okinawa in WWII use to tell stories about this island. So the first thing that came to mind when I read my orders was that I would now get to see this place that haunted my uncle.
I left from St Louis,MO and our first stop was Hawaii, then Guam before landing in Kadina, Okinawa. Once getting settled in to my new duty station as a clerk in the Missile command center I discovered that Okinawa was a Paradise waiting to be discovered. I had it made on this island I worked from 8am till 5pm with an hour off for lunch with the weekends off so I had plenty of free time to explore this place. The Island is 60 miles long and 12 miles wide with a nice tropical breeze year round making it feel like you are in a Paradise.

My unit was stationed near the town of Naha which was a quaint little town with many shops and stores to check out. Nearly everyone here spoke English so communication was no problem. Naha was filled with strip bars , brothels and massage parlors which I did ,manage to visit a few times. Here is a picture looking downtown Naha.

On the weekends when the tide was low I loved to walk way out in the ocean just to see what I could find. I had discovered lots of treasures buried in the sand left over from a generation before during there landing on this Island. But on this particular day I found a piece of metal sticking up out of the sand so I started digging it out to my surprise what I had found was an old bomb from WWII, I got a picture of it with me and left it where it was. Here is a picture of me showing off what I had discovered.

Some of the other enjoyable things I like to do was go downtown and listen to the girls play the Oriental music. Here is a picture of the girls I took.

This next picture is of Suicide Cliff, this cliff is where hundreds of Okinawan people jumped to there deaths Rather than being captured by the Americans.

This picture is of the entrance to the Okinawan College .

Okinawa 1967

This is the Pinnacle on the Island of Ie Shema just off the coast of Okinawa. This picture is what it looked like after the battle in 1945. The battle for this hill was long fought and hard with over 200 American lives lost taking this hill. The Japanese had this hill highly protected , see picture below.

Below is a picture of me standing on top of this Pinnacle with what remains of one of the gun implacements taken in 1967.

The top of the Peak

Thursday, September 8, 2011

The Bad Boys of Company B

The Bad Boys of Company B

We are the heart breakers

And the beer drinkers

The trouble makers

And the life takers

We bust our ass all day

We like to fight all night

We hail from everywhere

From the east coast to the west coast

We might take a toke

But it's no joke

When the enemy is in sight, we don't hesitate

We squeeze the trigger to our delight

Tracers ripping into the night

It must be a huge fire fight

The overwhelming urge to break and run

The paralyzing instinct to freeze or hide

The flares are popping overhead

The shadows are dancing on the ground

As we ramble on down the trail

The bullets streaking through the air

In the distance sickening sounds

The deadened thump of mortar rounds

Shouts of in-coming and everyone running

Nowhere to run to and nowhere to hide

You just might live to see another day

For this time it's do or die

Wednesday, September 7, 2011

My Old Cruiser 47 Fleetline

I was cleaning out my big stack of CD's and I found some more pictures of my old 47. She was a beauty and fun car to drive, she would turn a lot of heads when you drove down the street. The first time we took it to the car show we came home with a trophy. She left me a lot of memories of cruising on a hot summers night. Though she didn't have a big engine it sure was fun watching the heads turn as you drove by.

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

We called it Our Vietnam

We called it our Vietnam

I called it my Vietnam

We all called it our Vietnam

We felt it was, as a war quite versed

As versed as any psalms

When we first arrived, as kids

We'd have sworn we had her in our very palms

Wasn't long until before our very eyes

This War would soon cut us down to size

Too big for our britches we were

But we never forget how to say 'sir'

We thought as young whips, we were cunning

We soon discovered Vietnam wasn't just funning

Oh yes, Boys, she meant business and knew her stuff

When asked back home 'did She win?'

We'd knock back a drink and say 'sure enough'

We felt kind of whipped

We had felt ill equipped

But back home older veterans shook their heads

"We could have attested to that fact, nough said"

Why didn't ya tell us fellas, we asked

We could say till the cows came home

But we knew our warnings don't last

One generation whipped, and ill equipped

The next generation, same thing

Each generation, having a new war song to sing

Would you have believed us then?

No, you'd have said: "Come again?"

Just as when we were young, we are different we said

We all say the same to those before us in time

We say the same thing until war makes us count our dead

(c) S. Weathers 2011

Monday, August 22, 2011

Live each day like it’s your last

As the years tick by

And time seems to fly

Enjoy each day like there is no tomorrow

Do all the things you love to do

Fulfill all your dreams and desires

Who cares what anyone thinks

Surf the net, surf the waves

Have a whiskey, have a beer

Lift the glass to drink good cheer

You can ride a bike or exercise

But this is a fact, no surprise

That little heart only gets so many beats

So when you exercise, thinking death you cheat

You’re wrong my Friend

You’ll in the end get a plot covered in peat

So enjoy your time now

Don’t let anyone dissuade you somehow

Through this life, enjoy, glide don’t just plow

Today is today

Yesterday’s gone

Live life today, write new songs

Enjoy each day as if it’s your last

Have a good time

Have a party, have a blast

Stop smell the roses

Look at pretty ladies with hoses

Maybe they’ll give you some poses

Being old is no curse

Maybe a lady will call you fresh

Maybe they’ll hit you with their purse

So I put on my shoes to go running

Well on second thought

I think I’ll go to the lake and go sunning

Don’t let life give you a fright

Live each day like it’s your last

One day you too will get it right

Monday, August 15, 2011

Remember when America Stood for something

Say La Vie said the old folks

This country used to belong to you and me

We saw a lack of Civil Rights and knew it wasn’t right

We knew about the trickle down affect, long before Ronald Regan

Especially when it came to social issues

But we didn’t sit and whine and cry

And we didn’t say please pass the tissues

Our friends back then said “It isn’t right”

But instead of saying, ‘Oh well’ we fought with all our might

The government said we were Commies, Subversives and wanted us to shut up

But we laughed, rallied in groups, took to the streets and said

‘Sorry big Gov, your lawlessness time is now up’

The government boys said we’d ‘get hurt if we kept on’

We said, “Go ahead then, fill up our cup’

They came at us with cops, tear gas, and Billie clubs

We lived through some big times

Some history enough to write a big fat hub

Did we stop because we met a cop?

No sir we kept on and stood up for what’s right

We rallied, protested from the North, South, East and West

We rallied and did our best from New York State to Kent State

When our brothers were hurting, our duties we did not keep skirting

We knew with danger we might be flirting

Our parents sighed, our parents cried

The elders said why do this?

We said because YOU taught us to care

How can we live in a world of pain we don’t share?

The old folks said, ‘well you have us There’

Just like today, we could have shied away

But when you roll over, to your kids what do you say?

You tell of a tale of being a coward and scared?

Or tell them, it wasn’t right, we had to go there?

I’d rather say I tried, stood up and never shied

Instead of being run off a cliff while for cowards No One cries

We remember heroes

When we let it go on as cowards, we are Less than zero

What should OUR children and grandchildren say?

Our parents and grandparents let scoundrels have their way?

Why they didn’t care for future generations, it’s hard to say

Will you allow it or will you save the day?

We now say the rich got rich by hard work

The rich got rich by being jerks

You want your grandchildren sent to a mine to work?

If we don’t say a word, WE are the jerks!

You want to be a follower and pushed from a cliff?

Are you afraid to be a leader because of a little riff?

Yes, stand up for your rights there will be a tiff

But standing up in America is the only way to UP LIFT

It won’t get done by simply lip service

Has this Generation ever heard of community service?

Or does a little hard work make you nervous?

So stand up for America or they will have there way just like a thief in the night

© S. Weathers 2011

Sunday, August 14, 2011

So when is an Ass an Ass

1920 French A.S.S.

Driving through the country side

Along the road I seen a Ass

Prettiest ass I ever did see

Pulling a wagon down the hill

Watching him was such a thrill

So when is an ass a bad word?

For an ass you see is an Animal

Some say an ass is an idiot

If you’re an ass you are stupid

An ass is also an old French car

An ass is a human Gene

So if someone says you are an ass

You just might get mad at them

But if you say you have a French Ass

They might be enthralled with you

For Wikipedia says an ass is not a bad word

So tell me now, what’s the big deal about an ass?

I guess it’s all in the eyes of the reader

So if I like my neighbors ass it’s no big deal

© S. Weathers 2011

Friday, August 12, 2011

A Kiss beneath the Old Umbrella

Sitting on the break wall by the river’s edge

Underneath the Old umbrella with you upon my lap

We while away the hours as we share love’s embrace

I leaned towards you and closed my eyes

As I placed my hands upon your thighs

Our lips meet with passionate desire

You smell so sweet, like the summer flowers

I could sit here forever and while away the hours

Under this umbrella and the summer showers

Your lips taste like brandy wine

Won’t you be mine forever in time

On a feast of love we will dine

Passers by stop and stare

We are wrapped in love with no care

Simply the two of us in a world we don’t share

I only have eyes for you filled with love

I feel like you are a gift from above

Your skin is so soft, like a morning dove

Sitting on the banks with you my sweet

It’s like a picnic, a wonderful treat

Your kisses sweep me off my feet

© S. Weathers 2010

Thursday, August 11, 2011

War Protest Songs of the 1960's

Protests of the Vietnam War

Even though I was in the military and in Vietnam, I do recall, vividly, the protests going on back in America. I was not upset, but I do remember some of my comrades were pretty upset that America was acting ungrateful. After all, we were supposed to be fighting for and protecting America, but all in all, as the war drug on and especially in the light of the TET Offensive, when we we all started to understand this war may not be winnable after all, I could well understand young men not wanting to be placed into forced servitude (draft) and made to fight in a war they did not agree with.

I loved the military and still do, but I realized that everyone wasn't me. Many soldiers, as the war continued, slipped off into the jungles of Vietnam, probably either being killed in the process or making their way home from a war they began to be disillusioned with. In America people used the terms, draft dodger, sedition, communists, socialists and anti-war protesters, baby killers, much like today. I am quite sure if the nightly news showed us all the real horrors of war, as it did back then, we'd have many more people taking to the streets, as they did then. I'm the first to admit war isn't pretty and I truly think, in modern warfare, no one wins. But our governments will continue to pick a fight with any country they either want something from, or for some kind of profit.

If we haven't learned a thing from Vietnam, then I don't think we ever will or even want to learn anything from it all. I learned many young men and women get sacrificed and it's a job for people, especially in a bad economy, but I don't see much else that war serves.

So I have compiled some of my favorite war protest songs from the Vietnam War era, but they can easily cover the wars we have now been fighting for far too long in the Middle East. I may have been a military man, but I am also a peace loving person. I became a Drill Instructor to, hopefully, teach young people how to survive and if they have to go to war, to hopefully, make it back home alive and in one peace. I always hope I did my job well because I loved helping young people learn how to survive.

Fixin to Die Rag

This one was sung rather late in the game during the Vietnam War and Country Joe and the Fish got the crowd of over a million people to join in. I kind of credit this song as one of the big ones that helped stop the war. We were a generation who did stop an entire war.

Eve of Destruction

Barry McGuire did this sone and we can tell, from the words, how we may possibly all be on the Eve of Destruction, maybe even more so now, than back then.

Fortunte Son

This is the one and only protest song created and sung by CCR in their career. They really didn't want to do a protest song, but since everyone was buying them in droves, they decided to do this one.

Blowin In the Wind

The words to this song kind of says it all. So it does not need too much introduction. I have no doubt most everyone has heard of this one.

Where Have all the Flowers Gone

This one, much like Blowin in the Wind, kind of says it all too.

Universal Soldier

This one depicts how the world has created soldiers from as far back as civilization can remember. They answer the call and some love it, some become disillusioned by it.

One Tin Soldier

This one really points out how most battles and skirmishes are futile and usually not necessary, for all the 'prize' turns out to be nothing anyone should have shed blood for.

Give Peace a Chance

John Lennon and his wife created this song to plead with people all over the world to try peace, for a change, instead of war. It too says it all.

The Draft Dodger Rag

This one sung by Pete Seeger is a tongue in cheek look at how people viewed draft dodgers back then.

I Ain't Marchin anymore

Arlo Guthrie did this rendition of the song. This depicts soldiers from long ago and fits the Vietnam war as well as the modern wars of today. It sings of the futility of wars.

There were more but these were the most popular songs of that time.

A Nation that didn’t understand

Vietnam veterans are unique as the only group of combat veterans in the history of this country who returned home to be reviled, vilified and abused rather than honored and appreciated. We are one of the most unjustly-maligned groups in American history.

As young men and women we answered the nations call to protect the world from the spread of Communism, at least that is what we believed. Some of us were drafted and many of us volunteered to serve for a cause we believed in. We all left are youth and innocence in Southeast Asia. Most of us are still haunted by the things we saw and did while we were there and over 58,000 of our brothers and sisters never made it home from that war.

When a nation of young people are drafted and forced into a war they may or may not agree with, then I think a country is asking for trouble from the onset. How does a country get enthusiasm for a war that is possibly reviled and hated by those forced into slavery via the draft board? So not only did people back home start to hate the war, many Vietnam veterans came home, disillusioned, broken and not even welcomed with open arms. Instead of returning to America with a bang, our return was more like a whimper and a sigh from the general public. To this day, I may not even be absolutely certain why we were in Vietnam, except, while there I felt it was a useful endeavor. I, as did many military people, felt we were halting the spread of Communism, maybe we were maybe it was just a good sell on the spin doctor’s part when it came to selling a war to people. I do know that sometimes, Americans presence brought indignation and hatred and even death upon some of the Vietnamese people for being accused of siding with America, from the Viet Cong’s point of view. At other times, it brought anger and indignation from Americans who accused the people of siding with the Viet Cong. It grew very difficult for the Vietnamese citizens to look at us all with kindness when treated as such by those of us there to help.

Why do I mention all of that? Well, the newscasters would often do stories about the Zippo Wars, as many Americans began to call the pictures of burning villages at the hands of some military people. To be fair, many military people, by later in the war, began to surmise that the support back home, as well as the chain of command was beginning to break down. American politicians began playing politics with young lives, those who were in Vietnam, without batting an eyelash. The resentment on the part of military people began to take hold.

Vietnam was the only war in history that was televised live nightly for people to watch. The unfiltered images grew on people’s minds and brought about the large uprisings a groundswell of opposition to the war and the strong passion ignited by the anti-war activists Vietnam Veterans were grossly mistreated when they returned home. It was the summer of 1969 when I myself returned home and I remember taking my DD 214 down to the local town clerk to have it posted in the records, like a dummy I wore my uniform that day as a proud soldier returning home, people would stare at me and some even spat at me and called me baby killer. From the images that people saw on the news they assumed that we were all baby killers and we were all looked down upon. For four decades Vietnam Vets have been vilifed by some factions of the public. Vietnam vets are still treated with contempt in some circles, and the false stereotype continues to be repeated, often innocently. It's time to educate the American public about our Vietnam Veterans. For those of you who are too young to remember the truth, the lies have been repeated so often that they are generally accepted as the truth.


Television brought the brutality of war
into the comfort of the living room.
Vietnam was lost in the living rooms of America
- not on the battlefields of
--- Marshall McLuhan, 1975


Vietnam War myths: A common belief: The U.S. lost the war in Vietnam

Fact: The South Vietnamese people lost the war once funding from Congress was cut off. In fact, the U.S. won every major battle fought in Vietnam. So there is NO reason for veterans to ever feel defeated.

Myth: Most Vietnam veterans were drafted.

Fact: Two thirds of the men who served in Vietnam were volunteers. Some even volunteered for the draft, so those who were officially listed as being drafted, were, in fact volunteers.

Myth: A disproportionate number of blacks were killed in Vietnam. Many back home believed that blacks were used as ‘cannon fodder’ in battles.

Fact: 86% of the men who died in Vietnam were white and 12.5% were black while 1.2% came from other races. In the book: All That We Can Be, authors, Moskos and Butler said they did analyze that claim and could report most definitely that ‘blacks being used as cannon fodder’ is absolutely not true.

The biggest lie of all : We lost the war in Vietnam

How could we loose a war that we already stopped fighting. The last American troops departed Vietnam on the 29th of March 1973. The fall of Saigon did not happen until two years later on the 30th of April 1975.*******************